__Agent provocateur__ – in the absence of such credits means that after a while, our voice is dismissed by those who dislike our ideology

__Analogue__: as noted in Brookfield – an object, concept or situation which in some way resembles a different situation

__Assumptions__ are the taken for granted beliefs about the world and our place within it that seem so obvious to us as not to need stating explicitly.

__Assumptions__ According to Brookfield (1995) there are three types of assumptions
~~Paradigmatic~~ The most difficult to recognize as they are “basic structuring axioms” used in categorizing norms and values taken for granted. (p.2)-Objectively valid renderings of reality, the facts we know to be true

__Authentic Voice__ – Brookfield describes this as the “discovery” of the authentic voice “is at the heart of the critically reflective process”. (p.47)

__Banking system of education__ – based on the assumption that memorizing information and regurgitating it represented gaining knowledge that could be deposited, stored and used at a later date. The phrase __”banking__ __education”__ was first used by Freire in his book The Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1973).

__Causal__  This assumption helps society make sense of how the world works now and how it could be changed.

__Circle of voices__: is a period of time in the conversation when the members of a group each take a turn to say anything about the topic that they have not been able to say up to that point.  Sometimes the circle is only for those who have not yet spoken.  It is a conversational catch-up, a chance for the diffident, introverted, or browbeaten to speak out. If they have not been able to break into the conversation, they know that in the time set aside for the circle of voices, they will be able to say what is on their mind.

__Communicative virtues__ – These virtues include “tolerance, patience, respect for differences, a willingness to listen, the inclination to admit that one may be mistaken, the ability to reinterpret or translate one’s own concerns in a way that makes them comprehensible to others, the self-imposition of restraint in order that others may “have a turn” to speak, and the disposition to express oneself honestly and sincerely.”

__Conscientization in the classroom__ is critical awareness and engagement.  Breaking through prevailing mythologies to reach new levels of awareness, in particular, awareness of oppression.

__Critical journey__: examining ourselves and taking a path of self awareness to serve ourselves and others.

__Critical thinking__ –  the ability to exhange ideas, team build, problem solve for optimal self growth; to question assumptions. (Rose, May 9)

__Cultural codes__ – Cultural codes are defined as symbols and systems of meaning that are relevant to members of a particular culture (or subculture). These codes can be utilized to facilitate communication within the ‘inside group’ and also to obscure the meaning to ‘outside groups’. (University of Southampton, UK)..teach effectively a diverse student body

__Democratic Classroom__- Embracing the thoughts and views of the many different “voices” in the classroom including the teachers “voice”.  In Brookfield (1995) “…(the) educational processes are seen to be open to genuine negotiation”. (p. 45)

__Democratic discourse__ – the ability to talk and listen respectfully to those who hold views different from our own

__Desire to learn__- to receive actively knowledge that enhances our intellectual development and our capacity to live more fully in the world

__Deviance Credits__: “brownie points” assigned informally by an institution for work that is not necessarily attributed to an individual. Earning “deviance credits” can help when opposing traditional positions etc.

__different worlds__ – students perceive the same actions and experience the same activities in vastly different ways

__Dominant View__- The dominant view in (a society) teaching refers to the established language, behavior, values, and processes  or rituals that are used to elicit certain responses from our students. These traits are often the norm for the profession as a whole. The dominant view is usually but not always practiced by the majority of teachers and achieves its dominance by controlling students through communication, artistic expression, political process, and business. For example, using discussion as a teaching method is intended to engage students affectively by exposing them to multiple perspectives on knowledge… [However]  Power imbalances are caused by race gender and class. Brookfield p.88

__Epistemology__ – the branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, methods, validity, and limits of human knowledge. Jennifer Coristine, May 15, 10:21 AM

__Epistemological Distortion__ – This holds that someone or something out there has the knowledge that constitutes the answer to our problems. We think that if we look long and hard enough we will find the manual, workshop, theory, or person that will tell us exactly what we need to do

__Excitement__ – the arousal or stir defined in higher education as potentially disruptive of the atmosphere of seriousness assumed to be essential to the learning process.

__Extra Pedagogic__: all the associated and sundry activities outside of teaching that may be important from an institutional perspective but have less relationship to the teaching

__Hegemony__ is the political, economic, ideological or cultural power exerted by a dominant group over other groups, regardless of the explicit consent of the latter. While initially referring to the political dominance of certain ancient Greek city-states over their neighbors, the term has come to be used in a variety of other contexts, in particular Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci’s theory of cultural hegemony. The term is often mistakenly used to suggest brute power or dominance, when it is better defined as emphasizing how control is achieved through consensus not force. (jennifer – April 27)

Hegemony is the process whereby ideas, structures, and actions come to be seen by the majority of people as wholly natural, preordained, and working for their own good, when in fact they are constructed and transmitted by powerful minority interests to protect the status quo that serves those interests. (see page 15 of Brookfield).

__Holistic Model of Learning__-teaching to enrich the mind, body and soul at the same time.

__Ideology Critique__ – the purpose of the process is to help us recognize how unjust dominant ideologies, uncritically accepted, are embedded in everyday situations and practices. Dominant ideologies are sets of values, beliefs, myths, explanations, and justifications that appear to the majority to be self-evidently true and morally desirable. Ideologies manifest themselves in language, social habits, and cultural forms and are harder to penetrate (Brookfield, p. 87).

__Informed Action__– Those actions that can be explained and justified to ourselves and others. An informed action has a good chance of achieving the consequences intended. It is an action that is taken against a backdrop of inquiry into how people perceive what we say and do.

__Liberatory pedagogy__ is a pedagogy of liberation centered around the principles of social change and transformation through education based on consciousness-raising and engagement with opposite forces.  Liberatory education cannot serve the interests of any oppressive order which prohibits the individual from questioning the validity of the social reality.  As the practice of freedom to inquire, liberatory pedagogy is grounded in the interrelatedness between reality and human consciousness

__Multiculturalism__  In Canada first adopted as an official policy in the 1970’s by the Liberal government lead by Prime Minister Trudeau.  It is the promotion and acceptance of many ethnic groups in a democratic process.

__Non-conformity__ – viewed with suspicion as empty gestures of defiance aimed at masking inferiority or substandard work; a conscious decision to act contrary to established ideas or customs.

__Patriarchy__ – A form of social organization in which the father is the supreme authority in the family, clan, or tribe and descent is reckoned in the male line, with the children belonging to the father’s clan or tribe.
It also referes to a society, community, or country that is based on this social organization. hooks refers to  this type of social organizatin when she speaks of the fear that some teachers have of any Western de-centering, specifically of the white male canon. – Jennifer Coristine, May 13, 2010.

__Pedagogical preferences__: capturing personal learning abilities and applying them to today’s teaching.

__Phenomenography of Learning__:a methodology that investigates the differences in the ways that people learn or experience something.

__Praxis__ – action and reflection upon the world in order to change it; the application or use of knowledge and skills in contrast to theory.

__Premise Distortions__ (Mezirow, 1991): our deeply embedded internal perceptions that define that parameters of our thinking. Brookfield (1995) describes as “self-censoring devices” and “nagging voices of denial…” (p.45)

__Prescriptive__  This assumptions is based on what society thinks should be happening in a given situation.

__Radical__ –  Of or pertaining to the root or origin; reaching to the center, to the foundation, to the ultimate sources, to the principles, or the like; original; fundamental; thorough-going; unsparing; extreme; as, radical evils; radical reform; a radical party. (Jennifer Coristine, May 15, 4:00.)

__A Radical__ – One who advocates radical changes in government or social institutions, especially such changes as are intended to level class inequalities; opposed to conservative. (Jennifer Coristine, May 15, 4:05).

__Speaking authentically__ – that we are alert to the voices inside us that are not our own, the voices that have been deliberately implanted by outside interests rather than springing from own experience

__Stabilizing Traditions__:  Traditions have the same place in society that a habit holds in the life of an individual. Both are accustomed ways of thinking and acting that become comfortable after a time and become grounded in the laziness or powerlessness of a person to critically think and challenge accepted norms. Traditions and habits are useful tools until a better tool is discovered, but there are plenty of apes willing to avoid a little work by continuing to roll on a square instead of endeavoring to chisel a wheel out of stone. Traditions are important as social mores which anchor an individual in a sustainable lifestyle until a new way of life presents itself. – I found this in Yahoo under “philosophy – traditions”. Jennifer Coristine, May 15, 9:17 AM

__Tokenism__ – refers to a policy of practice of limited inclusion of members of a minority group, usually creating a false appearance of inclusive practices, intentional or not.

__Teaching Logs__ – a weekly record of the events in a teacher’s life that have impressed themselves most vividly on his or her consciousness (Brookfield, p. 72).

__Teacher Learning Audits__ – a reflective tool that focuses specifically on encouraging teachers to view themselves as adult learners is the teacher learning audit (Brookfield, p. 75).

__Role Model Profiles__- one way in which teachers become aware of their assumptions is by talking about colleagues they admire and why they admire them.  We frequently choose as role models people whose qualities and abilities we would like to emulate, and people who excel in the kinds of things we wish we could do (Brookfield, p. 77).

__Survival Advice Memos__ – writing this memo helps surface capacities and insights that teachers feel are crucial to success as they define it.  What they write in the memo reveals the knowledge they take seriously and the assumptions that most influence them (Brookfield, p. 78).

__Videotaping__ – videotaping our teaching can be wonderful, though sometimes shcoking way of getting to see ourselves as others see us (Brookfield, p. 79).  Allows us to make an accurate estimate of how much time is devoted to teacher talk and how much to student speech in our classes.  It lets us see how much time we allow for students to analyze, reflect, or practice.  It also allows us to see how visual our teaching is – do we use gestures well, move around a lot, show overheads, draw graphics on the board, or do we stand in one spot and talk in a monotone? (Brookfield, p. 80).

__Theory__ – an ideal or hypothetical set of facts, principles, or circumstances – often used in the phrase ~~in~~ theory~~we have always advocated freedom for all.

__Blind spots__ – areas  of assumptions that are left personally untouched due to inability to see them, lack of importance,  or inability to see the motivation to change them (Brookfield p. 71)
__student learning journals__ – regularly compiled summaries of students’ experiences of learning that are written in their own terms

__troubleshooting period__ – time that is expressly devoted to matters of process rather than content

__participant learning portfolio__ – a cumulative record of a student’s experiences as a learner in a particular course

__letter to successors__ – current students compose a letter that will be sent to new students who are entering the same course the next time it is offered

__AGENCY__:  The condition of being in action; operation.   2. The means or mode of acting; instrumentality.  hooks speaks of agency in discussing the delivery mode of her teaching.  How she acts, how she delivers, how she operates in her role. – Jennifer May 26.

Pedagogic rationale – pedagogic reasoning – the underlying principles that explain a teachers’ actions and how they relate to course/curriculum expectations and outcomes

Liberatory activism – Activism, which serves to liberate  to bring about social, political, economic, or environmental change

Critical Ethnography- research that attempts to describe, analyse and open to scrutiny otherwise hidden agendas, power centres and assumptions that inhibit, repress and constrain” and that “requires that  commonsense assumptions be questioned.

Journals: a reflection of one’s thoughts and actions for self awareness and self improvement expressed with logs, painting, poems, music or dance(Rose)

Transgression: changing direction depending  on external or internal influences, inhibitions or experiences (Rose)

A teacher is one that guides, educates, mentors and coaches a learner by establishing, supporting and maintaining relationships, contributing to achieve their goals and allow them to grow as human beings.(Rose)

Multicultural: the inclusion of diversity , change and acceptance(Rose)

Commitment to freedom is based on our beliefs, attitudes, values and interests.(Rose)

Transformative power of learning is the power to make a difference to both the situation and the person in that situation.(Rose)

Learning is like experiencing music aesthetically, one must have sympathetic awareness by being open and set aside prejudices.

__Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQ)__ – helps us embed our teaching in accurate information about students’ learning that is regularly solicited and anonymously given.  It helps provide a quick and revealing way to ascertain the effects your actions are having on students and to discover the emotional highs and lows of their learning.  The CIQ will provide you with a running commentary on the emotional tenor of each class you deal with (Brookfield, p. 114)

_Critical incidents:_ are vivid happenings that for some reason people remember as being sugnificant

Vernacular – translation into standard English may be needed if one wishes to reach a more inclusive audience

Storyteller: is the teacher who is willing to make herself the focus of critical conversation by first describing some part of her practice

Detectives: are the colleagues in her group whose purpose is to help her come to a more fully informed understanding of the assumptions and actions that frame her teaching

Umpire: the teacher who has agreed to monitor conversation with a view to pointing out when people are talking to each other in a judgmental way

Prescriptive assumption: concern the moral and ethical imperative of teache behaviour

Epistemological perspective: the points from which information is shared

Class: more than one’s economic standing – it is determined values, standpoint and interests.

Group think – Groupthink, a term coined by social psychologist Irving Janis (1972), occurs when a group makes faulty decisions because group pressures lead to a deterioration of “mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment” Groups affected by groupthink ignore alternatives and tend to take irrational actions that dehumanize other groups.  A group is especially vulnerable to groupthink when its members are similar in background, when the group is insulated from outside opinions, and when there are no clear rules for decision making..Groupthink – arises when the teachers come from the same class, cultural group and geographical area and because they have gone through similar educational experiences

Circular response exercise – circle based activity to promote attentive, respectful listening – utilizes paraphrasing and the embedding of contributors comments into the development of your own remarks.

Bourgeois Values – a middle class system of values, attitude , social relations and biases that inform the way knowledge is given and received in the classroom. No one ever directly states that these rules will govern our conduct, the rules are taught by example and reinforced by a system of rewards. With these rules, loudness, anger and emotional outbursts and even unrestrained laughter are deemed unacceptable vulgar disruptions of classroom social order

Critical conversation: acknowledging and caring to understand the other person’s point of view and actively being involved in the communication process.(Rose)

Critical reflection: reflecting on what has been said when conversing for a better understanding of meaning and actions of ourselves .(Rose)

Ground rules: provides a safe environment without threats amongst the members to maintain stability and control. (Rose)

The good practice audit (GPA) is a three-phase process in which teachers search their experiences for good responses to common problems they encounter

Problem Formulation – here teachers individually identify the most pressing problems they encounter in their work

Compilation of suggestions for practice – here group members summarize the insights, ideas, tips, responses and techniques

Dialogic lecture – the teacher structures his or her expertise according to what students have said earlier rather than having students structure their remarks to follow a discourse unilaterally imposed by the teacher’s lecturing voice

Eros a force that enhances our overall effort to be self actualizing

Passion: the emotional and spiritual desire or love towards someone or something (Rose)

Critical Imagination: a mind with deep creative responses towards something good or bad (Rose)
Motivating Force: a pull that enables one to perform what is required (Rose)

GPA: a guide for teachers to help people when encountering problems by incorporating reflection and collaboration (Rose)

Privatization of knowledge – Creating a collaborative existance in a  professional environtment that fosters growth and critical reflection. (Brookfield 140) – Michelle

Myles Horton- founded the Highlander Folk School in 1932 located in eastern Tennessee.  He is a well known social activist. 

Experiential questions – (as they relates to teaching and learning) – using our own lens of experience to help view written or theroretical depictions of teaching.

Cultural distortions – influences from our own cultural perspective that impact our interpretation our experiences. Using an “uncritical” framework creates the distortions and risks idealizing or romanticizing them.

Axiomatic concept (in teaching)- the use of an axiom or self-evident truth as an guiding idea around which teaching and learning occurs.

Epistemological questions – inquire into what writers regard as acceptable grounds for an assertion of truth

Experiential questions – help us view written depictions of teaching and learning through the lenses of our own experiences

Communicative questions focus on matters of form, style and presentation, so they appear to be apolitical, even superficial

Political correctness – used as a term of abuse, advocating a political approach to reading educational literature carries many risks

Premature ultimate – stops any critical debate dead in its tracks

Starting out – setting off down the road, getting going, shifting from one point to another, not sticking or staying

engaged pedagogy – teachers must be actively involved committed to a process of self-actualization that promotes their own well-being if they are to teach in a manner that empowers students. (hooks 1994: 15)

Epistemological Questions – finding out how an author comes to know that something is true.  It inquires into what writers regard as acceptable grounds for assertion of truth.

The Imposter Syndrome-described by Brookfield (p. 229) feelings of incompetence, and a lack of confidence in teaching abilities.  Fears of being “found out” as an imposter.

Stasis-The collective agreement not to rock the boat by asking awkward questions or doing things differently- A state in which there is neither motion nor development and therefore no growth
Lost Innocence- This is the gradual realization that the dilemmas of teaching have no ultimate solution

Education as the practice of freedom:  hooks waves this banner triumphantly in her book “Teaching to Transgress” where she exemplifies, through the critical reflection of her teaching practice and responses to her life experiences, that transformation is possible and ABSOLUTELY REQUIRED, in order for our classrooms to become places where education is the practice of freedom – Where students are free to learn, blossom and transform, free of the isms of so many of our traditional teaching forums.


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